Hunting for "peacock eye"
Labradorite in Ukraine: History, deposits, mining.
Do you know what a "peacock eye"? ...
Among the large variety of natural and decorative stone, which is produced in Ukraine, with its uniqueness, variety of tones, colors and shades: granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, travertine, basalt, and many others, labradorite is considered as the most valuable. Why labradorite? Demand for it has existed for many centuries, primarily as a construction and decorative material, which is a real decoration for decoration and facing. It is well-known architects and builders around the world. Decorative labradorite is primarily dependent on the size, number, location, and overflows the so-called "eye." Due to its unique property - iridescence, that is, the ability to form multi-colored (green, red, yellow, purple, blue, gold), rainbow glow on the surface of the stone, which at once distinguishes it from other types of natural stone tiles, it was valued in ancient times. The color scheme of his very diverse: from the dark - blue, almost black to milky - white and fiery - red.
Labradorite perfectly polished, grinded, and receives the texture of absorption. For a long time it was believed that Labradorite can not be heat treated, but not so long ago, native craftsmen adapted to attach to it and a texture that is actively begun to implement. This stone is extremely rare in the world. His field is on the Scandinavian Peninsula, India, South and North America, South Africa, on the island of Madagascar, but a significant, if not most of the fields of industrial stocks and the most valuable species of this amazing stone is concentrated in Ukraine, namely in the Zhitomir region .
Although labradorite was "discovered" relatively recently, in the second half of the XVIII century by British missionaries in the peninsula of Labrador in North America (Canada), he was well known and widely used long before. It was used by the mysterious "people red ocher" at the beginning of the II millennium BC, which was inhabited by the modern State of Maine (USA), and The Roman scientist Pliny the Elder described it in detail in his works. . In Ukraine, the stone was well known in the times of Kievan Rus' under the title "Peacock" and "Eye of the Firebird " and "Miracle - a stone." In IX - XII century. it began to be applied during construction, cladding and decoration of churches. It was used in the mosaic of the altar Church of the Tithes (X century), from this stone has been made tomb of the prince of Kiev Mstislav Vladimirovich (son of Vladimir Monomakh, XII century).
Over the next seven centuries miracle - stone was in oblivion. Only in the XIX century starts a new Ukrainian labradorite to climb worldwide fame and recognition. The richest deposits of labradorite have been opened in the first half of XIX century in Kyiv, Volyn and Kherson provinces Dr. Shirmorom (1835), which to this day kept his primacy in the world. He was an active start to apply the veneer, decoration and construction of monumental buildings: temples, columns, monuments, pedestals, not only of the then Russian Empire. In large quantities labradorite exported to Austria - Hungary, France, Italy and other countries.
Since from the labradorite Kamennobrodskogo field (Fantasy Azure) was made ten columns of the palace of San - Donato (Italy), the columns of the Vladimir Cathedral in Kiev (1886), Transfiguration Cathedral in Zhitomir (1874). They were covered and decorated pylons of the temple of the Ascension and St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. - Petersburg, the Cathedral of Christ the Savior Cathedral in Moscow.
In the days of Soviet power and the rapid development of promote monumental starts real rise Ukrainian labradorite. So in 1927 at the World Exhibition of building and decorative products in the New - York, labradorite Turchinsky deposit (New Bobrik, which is currently fully worked out and is only mentioned in the literature) received the highest award - a gold medal as a decorative material of the highest quality for their gentle - blue tones and cornflower modulations.
From labradorite Golovinsky deposit (Volga Blue) made ??the main block of the main entrance to the mausoleum of VI Lenin. It was used for finishing and wall subway stations in Tbilisi, Baku, Moscow, St. - Petersburg, the memorial complex "Khatyn" in Belarus, the Supreme Soviet building in Kiev, monument to Yuri Dolgoruky in Moscow, many pedestals, plinths and other structures throughout the territory of the former the Soviet Union.
Today the Ukrainian labradorites exported to France, USA, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Poland and many other countries, where is decorated the city and the streets.
Below, in alphabetical order (Table 1) in the regions of Ukraine is a list of labradorite of deposits such as those that are developed today, and those who for various reasons and circumstances of the conserved or developed from time to time (not systematically).
... in Zhytomyr region is concentrated 87.5% labradorite , in Kirovograd - 9.375% and 3.125% respectively in the Cherkasy region.
Mining of labradorite - it is rather complicated, so problems can arise at any stage of the process. Projects and respectively flow charts of almost all deposits of production labradorite were carried out during the Soviet period. Then as and is now universal scheme of mining labradorite does not exist.
As the old miner proverb: "Which geology - such a technology." Based on these conditions, respectively, and was selected equipment. The benefit granted extensive use of blasting and manual work. Extraction was carried out practically by hand: to drill bore-holes were widely used hand-held hammer type PR - 22 and manual wedges preliminary milling of oversize stone blocks. To create additional exposure of the planes (cutting slits) used a continuous drilling machines SBU-type - 100 F (R), Nagorno-Karabakh - 100, SBMK 5 (with 105 mm), etc.
The use of non-explosive mixture of breaking (LDCs) and hydraulic wedge was rather limited.
The situation began to change radically only in the mid 90 - 's, due to the large selection of highly productive mining equipment and application of new technologies. For drilling an advantage was given to hydraulic drilling units of the Finnish - Swedish company "Sandvik - Tamrock" (Commando - 100, 110, 120; Trimmer - 100, 200, 240) and pneumatic drilling installations drilling machine Italian companies "Marini Quarries Group", "Benetti macchine "" Pellegrini "(the last part of the consortium" Associazione Italiana Marmomacchine ").
Niche occupied and Turkish pneumatic drill installation strochechnogo "Tiger" of Setmakina. To create additional exposure of the array of planes began to use more productive (as compared with the same type of domestic machines SBU - 100) of continuous machines drilling Slot Liner SL - 550 well-established Finnish - Swedish company "Sandvik-Tamrock" with bits (76 mm), reinforced with diamond inserts and implement cutting slits and trenching with diamond settings - wire rope cutting (ACP).
Using a hydraulic wedges, and even more gidroro splitter (the elements of Lebedev's structures, which no one had even heard of, although they are more efficient - approx. Author.) In the quarries for the extraction of labradorite did not stick because of their ignorant use.
... effectiveness of ACTs is much greater than in ispolzovaniyai SL - 550. In addition, the use of ACTs offers an opportunity to completely abandon blasting and clearly define the future direction of production, size and geometry of the blocks of labradorite, which made ??for Ocheretyanskom, Mykovskom and several quarries, which actively use this technology.
One of the main problems is the use of incomplete and frequently - thick and complete disregard for natural tips - natural fracture systems: longitudinal - S,
cross - Q, diagonal - D and primary - reservoir L, rational use of which reduces the losses in production and improves the quality and yield of certain categories of units and thus productivity.
Unfortunately, few people know and use pattern irrizatsii, through which you can get it with the necessary power level (which is very important to labradorite, as it affects its decorative), to determine the position of cleavage planes and the cutting of the stone, which is most clearly manifested it special - a decorative feature.
I hope that time will make claims about changes in the extraction of rock diva